Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism - Wikipedia
Free Essay: In George Orwell's , the strategies used by Oceania's Political In making a connection between Stalin's Russia and Big Brothers' Oceania, each Oceania is a society similar to Hitler's Germany; with absolute power in the. In October and November , German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet . Stalin proposed a toast to Hitler, and Stalin and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov repeatedly toasted the German nation, the Molotov– Ribbentrop Pact, and Soviet-German relations. Ribbentrop countered with a toast to. Orwell's is surely one of the best known novels of the century. and features of Orwell's dystopia were reminiscent of Hitler's and Mussolini's fascism, . Furthermore, one needs to work out analyses of the various relationships between.
That is to say, most of the inmates had not actually committed any action against the regime. Totalitarian systems and autocracies[ edit ] The totalitarian paradigm in the comparative study of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union was further developed by Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinskiwho wrote extensively on this topic both individually and in collaboration. In particular, it is distinguished by a reliance on modern technology and mass legitimation.
Friedrich and Brzezinski argue that Nazism and Stalinism are not only similar to each other, but also represent a continuation or a return to the tradition of European absolute monarchy on certain levels. This depends in part on the personal character of different leaders, but Friedrich and Brzezinski believe that there is also an underlying political cycle, in which rising discontent leads to increased repression up to the point at which the opposition is eliminated, then controls are relaxed until the next time that popular dissatisfaction begins to grow.
Totalitarianism can only exist after the creation of modern technology, because such technology is essential for propagandafor surveillance of the population, and for the operation of a secret police. First, an official ideology that is supposed to be followed by all members of society, at least passively, and which promises to serve as a perfect guide towards some ultimate goal.
Second, a single political partycomposed of the most enthusiastic supporters of the official ideology, representing an elite group within society no more than 10 percent of the populationand organized along strictly regimented lines. Fourth, a similar monopoly held by the party over the mass media and all technological forms of communication. The dictator, whether Stalin, Hitler or Mussolini, holds supreme power.
Friedrich and Brzezinski explicitly reject the claim that the Party, or any other institution, could provide a significant counterweight to the power of the dictator in Nazism or Stalinism. This is partly due to the way that totalitarian governments arise.
German–Soviet Axis talks
They come about when a militant ideological movement seizes power, so the first leader of a totalitarian government is usually the ideologue who built the movement that seized power, and subsequent leaders try to emulate him.
Friedrich points out that neither the Nazi nor the Stalinist government ever established any official line of succession or any mechanism to decide who would replace the dictator after his death.
There could never be any heir apparent, because such an heir would have been a threat to the power of the dictator while he was alive. Totalitarian Party[ edit ] Friedrich and Brzezinski also identify key similarities between the Nazi and Stalinist political parties, which set them apart from other types of political parties.
Rather, they strictly tested potential members, in a manner similar to exclusive clubs, and often engaged in political purges of the membership, expelling large numbers of people from their ranks and sometimes arresting and executing those expelled, such as in the Great Purge or the Night of the Long Knives.
While both Nazism and Stalinism required party members to display such total loyalty in practice, they differed in the way they dealt with it in theory.
Comparison by Vanessa Bell on Prezi
Stalinism, meanwhile, denied that it did anything similar, and claimed instead to uphold democratic principles, with the Party Congress made up of elected delegates supposedly being the highest authority. Thus, regardless of the differences in their underlying ideological claims, the Nazi and Stalinist parties were organized in practice along similar lines, with a rigid hierarchy and centralized leadership.
Friedrich and Brzezinski argue, in agreement with Arendt, that Nazi and Stalinist leaders really believed in their respective ideologies and did not merely use them as tools to gain power. Friedrich and Brzezinski also draw attention to the symbols used by Nazis and Stalinists to represent themselves.
According to Friedrich and Brzezinski, the most effective terror is invisible to the people it affects. They simply develop a habit of acting in a conformist manner and not questioning authority, without necessarily being aware that this is what they are doing.
Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism
Propaganda is then used to maintain this appearance of popular consent. Both Joseph Goebbels and Soviet propagandists sought to demonize their enemies and present a picture of a united people standing behind its leader to confront foreign threats.
In both cases there was no attempt to convey complex ideological nuances to the masses, with the message being instead about a simplistic struggle between good and evil.
Both Nazi and Stalinist regimes produced two very different sets of propaganda — one for internal consumption and one for potential sympathizers in other countries.
And both regimes would sometimes radically change their propaganda line as they made peace with a former enemy or got into a war with a former ally. With no way for anyone to express criticism, the dictator has no way of knowing how much support he actually has among the general populace. Induring the early days of the Berlin Blockadethe Soviet leadership apparently believed that the population of West Berlin was sympathetic to Soviet Communism and that they would request to join the Soviet zone.
Two weeks after the German invasion, the Soviet Union invaded eastern Polandcoordinating with German forces. Nazi—Soviet economic relations — and German—Soviet Commercial Agreement Hitler's pressing for a German invasion of Poland in placed tremendous strain on the German war machine, which had been gradually gearing up for total war in or Nazi—Soviet economic relations — and German—Soviet Commercial Agreement In the summer ofGermany grew even more dependent on Soviet imports.
The suspension created significant resource problems for Germany. German officials indicated that they would be willing to give the Soviet Union freedom to operate east of the Dardanelles.
The pact contained an explicit provision Article 5 stating that it did not concern relations with the Soviet Union. Roosevelt won the presidential election four days later after promising there would be no foreign wars were he elected, Goebbels noted "after his statement, Roosevelt will hardly be able to enter the war in an active capacity.
The beginning of the end has now arrived for the British empire. This is no military problem at all. The Axis Powers are, therefore, not considering how they can win the war, but rather how rapidly they can end the war which is already won.
Though the world had subtly accepted the diplomacy of communism, still, there were many people who yearn for democracy and total liberation. America often presents the Soviet Union as state of moral experiment wherein people are highly ambiguous. By the time that George Orwell got fed up with the widespread oppression and cruelties, he longed to tell the people of its story and reality.
George was keen in demonstrating the ruling powers led by Stalin and Hitler as communist nations which use modern technology in oppressing people and society, closely monitoring and controlling them. Thus, Nineteen Eighty-Four is the perfect totalitarian government that George Orwell used in alluding to both Stalin and Hitler in their quest for absolute power.
George Orwell hoped that his book will serve its purpose of preventing the dangers and total destruction of totalitarian government if it would continue up to the near future Dwan,p. The Big Brother presented in the novel was the same kind of potentate leaders such as Stalin and Hitler. Even in the portrayal of the character Big Brother even looks more like Stalin.
Furthermore, considering the demographics and descriptions that were used in the novel, most totalitarian states are rather looking all similar. In the novel, Big Brother has focused hatred on his archenemy which was Goldstein which was Trotsky or the Jewish people. Big brother was the head of The Party which then is the most powerful system of censorship, torture, propagandas and suffering.
The novel clearly depicts the need of the society and every individual to conform to the principles and notions of The Party which was common for all communist country. In the book, Big Brother even ordered for history to be rewritten in order to suit the ideas of The Party Carpentier,p. These people group themselves round in order to attain some superhuman system and order and adopt the theory wherein the end will always justifies the means. George Orwell strongly believes that everywhere in the world, it seems that almost all people moved on one centralized point.
These powerful nations and states are but which not democratically organized institutions and might lead to establishment of caste system. Orwell was afraid that if the Soviet Union would continue to increase its quest for power and authority, the world would crumble and be destroyed.