Cognitive Consistency and Cognitive Dissonance I asked my friend, whom I hadn't seen in five years and who had married in that time. “Same as her mother's . online news credibility and cognitive dissonance as theoretical explanations for partisan attitude-consistent and neutral news sources as more credible than attitude- .. tion of gay marriage in Washington, D.C., and budget cuts to Planned . these competing perceptions within a cognitive dissonance theory framework, participants were . motives for attitude-consistency – lead to the rationalization of torture. . torture perceptions by examining the connection between dissonance and the justification of torture. My overall attitude towards gay marriage is: 1. 2.
If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. Both alternatives have their good points and bad points. The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative. People have several ways to reduce dissonance that is aroused by making a decision Festinger, One thing they can do is to change the behavior.
As noted earlier, this is often very difficult, so people frequently employ a variety of mental maneuvers.
Cognitive Consistency and Cognitive Dissonance
A common way to reduce dissonance is to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the rejected alternative. Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers. Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort.
The products included an automatic coffee maker, an electric sandwich grill, an automatic toaster, and a portable radio. Participants in the control group were simply given one of the products. Because these participants did not make a decision, they did not have any dissonance to reduce. Individuals in the low-dissonance group chose between a desirable product and one rated 3 points lower on an 8-point scale.
Participants in the high-dissonance condition chose between a highly desirable product and one rated just 1 point lower on the 8-point scale.
Cognitive Dissonance: What is it? – Karmic Reaction Blog
After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again. Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than did the participants in the other two conditions. In other words, they were more likely than participants in the other two conditions to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the unchosen alternative.
Effort It also seems to be the case that we value most highly those goals or items which have required considerable effort to achieve.
This is probably because dissonance would be caused if we spent a great effort to achieve something and then evaluated it negatively. If we put effort into a task which we have chosen to carry out, and the task turns out badly, we experience dissonance.
To reduce this dissonance, we are motivated to try to think that the task turned out well. A classic dissonance experiment by Aronson and Mills demonstrates the basic idea.
To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort. Method Female students volunteered to take part in a discussion on the psychology of sex. In the control condition, they went straight into the main study.Cognitive dissonance - Behavior - MCAT - Khan Academy
In all conditions they then heard a very boring discussion about sex in lower animals. They were asked to rate how interesting they had found the discussion, and how interesting they had found the people involved in it. Conclusion If a voluntary experience which has cost a lot of effort turns out badly, dissonance is reduced by redefining the experience as interesting.
This justifies the effort made.
Cognitive Dissonance: What is it?
Critical Evaluation There has been a great deal of research into cognitive dissonance, providing some interesting and sometimes unexpected findings. It is a theory with very broad applications, showing that we aim for a consistency between attitudes and behaviors, and may not use very rational methods to achieve it. We prefer what is referred to as Cognitive Consistency because it keeps us in a state of balance or equilibrium.
In fact, we will do whatever we can to restore balance to our lives.
Cognitive Consistency and Cognitive Dissonance - Life Issues
Mail a good friend recently sent to me: Lately, on occasion, I seem to be aware of circumstances that I cannot control but effect my very being. The world has changed.
The United States has changed. New York is in the throes of change. I cannot fully accept the challenges of change that are an antitheses to my beliefs. I remain comfortable in some of the experiences I had as a young lad and I basically have the same values I grew up with. The author of the above quote is a senior citizen who grew up in a world with a set of values that no longer seem to hold true because so much has changed in the United States, New York and the world in general.
A classic story that depicts one of the ways we deal with dissonance when we come across it is the fable, The Fox and the Grapes.
When the fox is unable to think of a way to reach them, he surmises that the grapes are probably not worth eating, as they must not be ripe or that they are sour. A prime example of this has to do with smoking cigarettes. That smoking causes cancer is a well established fact. Despite knowing this, people continue to smoke even though they want to live long lives. The two contradictory ideas: I know smoking causes cancer and, 2.
I want to live a long life, cause the unpleasant feeling of cognitive dissonance. How can smokers use rationalization to reduce disequilibrium? They can conclude that: Only a few smokers become ill.