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Mojallal M, Hosseinkhanzadeh A A, Taher M, Yahyazadeh A. Parent-Child Relationship and Smoking Among College Students: Role of Parents in Females' and. The relationship between parent relations and college students' academic performance was examined in two studies using samples of students enrolled in two. How has the relationship between parents and their students changed as the college generations have changed: from Boomers, to Gen Xers.
As you undergo your junior year changes, your calls to your parents become more and more about your future endeavors. You call them for support in your ambitious goals and they respect you for it. As a funny result, they will probably begin to tell you things about their past you had no idea existed. It will be a stressful but rewarding time. As this year comes to an end, you will look up and realize how fast it all went, and you will also realize how fast and drastically your relationships with others have changed since your freshman year.
Some people who you thought were best friends are now just acquaintances whose pictures you like on Facebook. Your parents, the people who you once viewed as gods, who knew every answer to everything and who would be your protector over all evil in the world, you now view as normal human beings. Human beings with flaws who just did the best they could to raise you with values that would preserve and guide you throughout college and life.
Participants received no cash bonus. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Since the dependent variables were dichotomous, three binary logistic regressions and one multinomial logistic regression were conducted to analyze the predictability of smoking status and smoking intensity. As the study aimed to investigate the gender-specific variations in smoking behavior, separate analyses were conducted for females and males.
Results First, the obtained data were checked for multicollinearity and outliers as the primary assumptions of logistic regression Pallant, After confirming these core assumptions, binary and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the predictability of smoking using the predictors. The mean and standard deviation of mother-child and father-child relationships in groups are presented in Table 1.
Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of mother-child and father-child relationships on the likelihood that respondents would report smoking.
The model contained two independent variables mother-child and father-child relationship. The model as a whole explained between 4. As shown in Table 2, mother-child relationship made a statistically significant contribution to the model, and recorded an odd ratio of 0.
This indicated that respondents who scored higher mother-child relationship were 0.
Then, multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of mother-child and father-child relationships on smoking intensity. The model contained two independent variables mother-child and father-child relationships and 4 groups nonsmoker, low, moderate, high.
The model as a whole explained between 7. As shown in Table 3, mother-child relationship could significantly distinguish nonsmokers from people with low dependence on nicotine, and recorded an odds ratio of 0. Father-child relationship did not contribute significantly to the model.
In addition, mother-child relationship could significantly distinguish nonsmokers from people with moderate dependence on nicotine, and recorded an odds ratio of 0. Finally, none of the predictors were able to distinguish nonsmokers from people with high dependence on nicotine.
Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of mother-child and father-child relationships on the likelihood that female respondents would report smoking. The model contained two independent variables mother-child and father-child relationships.
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The model as a whole explained between 5. As shown in Table 4, neither mother-child nor father-child relationship made a statistically significant contribution to the model. Finally, binary logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of mother-child and father-child relationships on the likelihood that male respondents would report smoking.
The model as a whole explained between 3. As shown in Table 5, mother-child relationship made a statistically significant contribution to the model, and recorded an odd ratio of 0. This indicated that male respondents who reported higher mother-child relationship were 0. Discussion The present study is among the rare systematic investigations of gender-specific variations regarding the association between parent-child relationships and smoking behavior in college students.
The current study found inconsistent support for its first hypothesis.
The 4 Stages of Your Relationship with Your Parents During College
According to the findings, mother-child relationship, but not father-child relationship, was the significant predictor of smoking status. This finding is in part consistent with the findings of Luk et al.
This study also found mixed support for the second hypothesis that mother-child and father-child relationships can predict smoking intensity in college students. According to the findings, mother-child relationship was the significant predictor of low and moderate dependence on nicotine, while it could not predict high nicotine dependence. On the other hand, father-child relationship could not predict smoking intensity.
Finally, the study found inconsistent support for its third and fourth hypotheses that mother-child and father-child relationships can predict smoking status in both female and male college students. They also found that neither mother-child nor father-child easy communication was associated with smoking among girls.
As mentioned earlier, father-child relationship was not the significant predictor of smoking and smoking intensity.
In addition, mother-child relationship could only explain small to moderate amount of variance for smoking behavior in college students. There are several explanations for these findings. Thus, in order to understand smoking behavior, all these factors and their interrelations and implications have to be considered.
The finding that mother-child relationship can only predict low to moderate levels of nicotine intensity implies several possibilities. First, this finding can be indicative of a major difference between the initiating, aggravating, and perpetuating factors of smoking.
In other words, mother-child relationship may drive someone to smoke, but it cannot determine later nicotine dependence intensity; instead, as Daw et al. In line with this statement, Belsky et al. Second, studies have shown that smokers have higher chances of falling into depression and anxiety disorders.
According to Boden, Fergusson, and Horwoodthere is a reciprocal relationship between smoking and depression in which smoking increases the risk of symptoms of depression; depression and anxiety may in turn perpetuate smoking behavior.
According to Luk et al. They believe that parents are more likely to underestimate the prevalence of risk behaviors among daughters than sons; so, they may spend more time talking to their sons about the negative outcomes of smoking. In addition, it is possible that girls have completely different reasons for initiating smoking. More research is needed to clear our understanding about the correlates of smoking in females.
The present study supported the role of mother-child relationship in smoking behavior and smoking intensity, but the amount of variance explained by these predictors was relatively small. However, based on Allen, Donohue, Griffin, Ryan and Turner findings, other factors may have a greater influence than parents on substance use, but parents do exhibit an influence on this behavior, which cannot be ignored.Dean's List #3: College Students and their Parents
Youths who report positive mother-child relationship may experience more positive family environment, which can protect them against stressful events and help them manage their problems using more efficient coping strategies. They may also spend more time talking to their mothers, which rises their awareness about the harmful effects of smoking, and protect them against risk factors such as misinformation, media influences, advertising, or social pressures.
In sum, further research is needed to clear our understanding of gender-specific correlates of smoking among youth. The results of this study have important implication for smoking prevention and intervention efforts. According to the findings, improving mother-child relationship may be beneficial in the prevention and intervention program, especially for male youth.
Further research is needed to determine the exact role of parent-child relationship in youth smoking behavior. Future studies can investigate the protective role of parent-child relationship as a mediator and moderator in the relationship of smoking and other risk factors. The findings of present study should be interpreted cautiously because of two limitations. First, this study had cross-sectional and correlational nature, so casual conclusions cannot be drawn out of it.
We suggest that future studies investigate the long-term role of parent-child relationship in youth smoking using longitudinal design. Second, these findings are limited to college students, and any generalization to other populations has to be done cautiously.
Acknowledgments This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Conflict of Interest The authors declared no conflicts of interest. Parent—child connectedness and behavioral and emotional health among adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30 159— They are given the opportunity to play an important role in helping the school achieve its mission Bago, In La Salle University, the parents play a significant role in the academic journey of their child.
They are required to report to the school in some scheduled activities like card distribution and family day. The performance of students in school is essential because it describes how they participate in the classroom as summarized in their report cards. The grades are concrete evidences of the learning of the students. One of which is the relationship with their parents.
Quality time with parents is very important for students since it strengthens the bond of a family.
Students’ Relationship with Parents: Basis for an Action Plan
If time spent with parents is disregarded, problems may rise. Parents have their ways in treating their children. The manner that they treat their children could be one of the reasons in the way their children perform at school. Review of Related Literature 2. Relationship with Parents The relationship between students and parents is affected by the parenting styles practiced by parents.
Baumrind distinguished parenting styles as identifying one as too hard, one as too soft, and one as just right. After studying how children and parents relate in their home, Baumrind came up with three major parenting styles.
Students study to achieve good grades. When students study, they can perform well in class. They can get good scores or comply the performance tasks. They succeed in the end. Parents support their children in school as shown in terms of: According to Parker and Wangparents who think they spend the right amount of time with their children are about three times as likely as parents stating that they spend little time with their children to say their parenting job is excellent.
The time students spend with parents is important because it motivates a student to perform well in school. If the parents spend their time mostly by always concentrating in their work, their children will just have to do things by themselves. These students perform better in school compared to students with parents who are not involved in their school. Students should receive attention and guidance from their parents. They show low levels of warmth and responsiveness.
The permissive parent is not strict at all and does not enforce rules or punishments. The authoritative parent presents themselves as authority figures.
They are loving and caring to their children but they also expect their children to behave. The parenting style employed by the parents affect their relationship with their children.
If parents are too strict or too lax to relate with their children, the performance of children in the school might as well affected. Strict parents may hinder their children to share about their difficulties in school. On the other hand, parents who are too lax may tend to have children who had less care about their schooling.
On the other note, involved parents tend to have children who are open about their successes and difficulties in school. The literature cited emphasized on the roles of parents in the performance of their children.
In general, the above-mentioned literature helped the researchers in coming up with the conceptualization of this present study.
The action plan is based on the findings of the study. An action plan will be recommended based on the findings of the study. More importantly, the study seeks to answer the following research questions: