Answer to Discuss the relationship between fluid balance and urinary elimination . The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestines—all of which also excrete wastes—to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. assessing fluid balance and hydration status are: clinical assessment, body weight and urine output; review of fluid balance charts; and review.
An accurate measure of fluid balance is therefore an important diagnostic tool, and allows for prompt intervention to correct the imbalance.
Routes of fluid loss and gain[ edit ] Fluid can leave the body in many ways. Fluid can enter the body as preformed water, ingested food and drink and to a lesser extent as metabolic water which is produced as a by-product of aerobic respiration cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis. Water generated from the biochemical metabolism of nutrients provides a significant proportion of the daily water requirements for some arthropods and desert animals, but provides only a small fraction of a human's necessary intake.
Thirst Input of water is regulated mainly through ingested fluids, which, in turn, depends on thirst. An insufficiency of water results in an increased osmolarity in the extracellular fluid.
This is sensed by osmoreceptors in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminaliswhich trigger thirst.
Urinary System and how it Works
Thirst can to some degree be voluntarily resisted, as during fluid restriction. The human kidneys will normally adjust to varying levels of water intake.
The kidneys will require time to adjust to the new water intake level. This can cause someone who drinks a lot of water to become dehydrated more easily than someone who routinely drinks less. These are termed "insensible fluid losses" as they cannot be easily measured.
The anti-diuretic hormones vasopressin ADH and aldosterone play a major role in this. If the body is becoming fluid-deficient, there will be an increase in the secretion of these hormones, causing fluid to be retained by the kidneys and urine output to be reduced. Conversely, if fluid levels are excessive, secretion of these hormones is suppressed, resulting in less retention of fluid by the kidneys and a subsequent increase in the volume of urine produced.
Antidiuretic hormone If the body is becoming fluid-deficient, this will be sensed by osmoreceptors in the vascular organ of lamina terminalis and subfornical organ. Thus, there will be an increase in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone, causing fluid to be retained by the kidneys and urine output to be reduced.
Renin—angiotensin system A fluid-insufficiency causes a decreased perfusion of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys.
This activates the renin—angiotensin system. Among other actions, it causes renal tubules i. Potassium is secreted into the tubule in exchange for the sodium, which is reabsorbed.
The activated renin—angiotensin system stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex which in turn secretes the hormone aldosterone.
This hormone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium ions from distal tubules and collecting ducts. Water in the tubular lumen cannot follow the sodium reabsorption osmotically, as this part of the kidney is impermeable to water; release of ADH vasopressin is required to increase expression of aquaporin channels in the cortical collecting duct, allowing reabsorption of water.
This test involves urinating into a special container and leaving the sample to be studied.
Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. Your doctor may want to do a urodynamic test if you are having symptoms that suggest problems with the muscles or nerves of your lower urinary system and pelvis—ureters, bladder, urethra, and sphincter muscles. Urodynamic tests measure the contraction of the bladder muscle as it fills and empties.
The test is done by inserting a small tube called a catheter through your urethra into your bladder to fill it either with water or a gas. Another small tube is inserted into your rectum or vagina to measure the pressure put on your bladder when you strain or cough.
Other bladder tests use x-ray dye instead of water so that x-ray pictures can be taken when the bladder fills and empties to detect any abnormalities in the shape and function of the bladder. These tests take about an hour. What are some disorders of the urinary system?
Disorders of the urinary system range in severity from easy to treat to life threatening. Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH is a condition in men that affects the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is located at the bottom of the bladder and surrounds the urethra. BPH is an enlargement of the prostate gland that can interfere with urinary function in older men.
Fluid balance - Wikipedia
It causes blockage by squeezing the urethra, which can make it difficult to urinate. Men with BPH frequently have other bladder symptoms including an increase in frequency of bladder emptying both during the day and at night. Most men over age 60 have some BPH, but not all have problems with blockage.
There are many different treatment options for BPH. In this disorder, the bladder wall can become inflamed and irritated. The inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, pinpoint bleeding, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining.
The cause of IC is unknown at this time. Kidney stones is the term commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the urinary system. Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. They vary in size. Some stones cause great pain while others cause very little. The aim of treatment is to remove the stones, prevent infection, and prevent recurrence.
Both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are used. Kidney stones affect men more often than women. Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland that results in urinary frequency and urgency, burning or painful urination, a condition called dysuria, and pain in the lower back and genital area, among other symptoms.
In some cases, prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics. But the more common forms of prostatitis are not associated with any known infecting organism. Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating the nonbacterial forms of prostatitis. Proteinuria is the presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine. Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave in protein. Protein in the urine does not cause a problem by itself.
But it may be a sign that your kidneys are not working properly.
The Kidney & Urology Foundation of America
Renal kidney failure results when the kidneys are not able to regulate water and chemicals in the body or remove waste products from your blood. Acute renal failure ARF is the sudden onset of kidney failure.
This condition can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, loss of a lot of blood, or some drugs or poisons. ARF may lead to permanent loss of kidney function.
But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease CKD is the gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease ESRD. You may go several years without knowing you have CKD. Urinary tract infections UTIs are caused by bacteria in the urinary tract.
Women get UTIs more often than men. UTIs are treated with antibiotics. Drinking lots of fluids also helps by flushing out the bacteria. The name of the UTI depends on its location in the urinary tract. An infection in the bladder is called cystitis.
If the infection is in one or both of the kidneys, the infection is called pyelonephritis. This type of UTI can cause serious damage to the kidneys if it is not adequately treated. Urinary incontinence, loss of bladder control, is the involuntary passage of urine. There are many causes and types of incontinence, and many treatment options. Treatments range from simple exercises to surgery.
Women are affected by urinary incontinence more often than men.
Urinary retention, or bladder-emptying problems, is a common urological problem with many possible causes. Normally, urination can be initiated voluntarily and the bladder empties completely. Urinary retention is the abnormal holding of urine in the bladder. Acute urinary retention is the sudden inability to urinate, causing pain and discomfort.
Causes can include an obstruction in the urinary system, stress, or neurologic problems.