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Released in , Braveheart brought foward the story of William Wallace to an In the film, Robert the Bruce is the 17th Robert Bruce and his father is dying of. "What I found particularly interesting was the portrayal of Robert the Bruce, who has always been something of a hero of Scottish history, but came out of the film . The movie gives off the image of William being born to poverty and living . It's also unclear if Edward actually was in a homosexual relationship with Wallace did support Robert the Bruce for the throne and Bruce's father.
He would have been schooled to speak, read and possibly write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father's family. He would also have spoken both the Gaelic language of his Carrick birthplace and his mother's family, and the early Scots language. This would have afforded Robert and his brothers access to basic education in the lawpoliticsscripturesaints' Lives vitaephilosophyhistory and chivalric instruction and romance.
Barbour reported that Robert read aloud to his band of supporters inreciting from memory tales from a twelfth-century romance of CharlemagneFierabrasas well as relating examples from history such as Hannibal 's defiance of Rome. Contemporary chroniclers Jean Le Bel and Thomas Grey would both assert that they had read a history of his reign 'commissioned by King Robert himself.
However, as growing noble youths, outdoor pursuits and great events would also have held a strong fascination for Robert and his brothers. They would have had masters drawn from their parents' household to school them in the arts of horsemanship, swordsmanship, the joust, hunting and perhaps aspects of courtly behaviour, including dress, protocol, speech, table etiquette, music and dance, some of which may have been learned before the age of ten while serving as pages in their father's or grandfather's household.
This grandfather, known to contemporaries as Robert the Nobleand to history as "Bruce the Competitor", seems to have been an immense influence on the future king. A significant and profound part of the childhood experience of Robert, Edward and possibly the other Bruce brothers Neil, Thomas and Alexanderwas also gained through the Gaelic tradition of being fostered to allied Gaelic kindreds—a traditional practice in Carrick, south-west and western Scotland, the Hebrides and Ireland.
This raises the possibility that young Robert the Bruce was on occasion resident in a royal centre which Edward I himself would visit frequently during his reign.
His name appears in the company of the Bishop of Argyllthe vicar of Arrana Kintyre clerk, his father, and a host of Gaelic notaries from Carrick. It is also around this time that Robert would have been knighted, and he began to appear on the political stage in the Bruce dynastic interest.
Robert the Bruce
In November of the same year, Edward I of Englandon behalf of the Guardians of Scotland and following the Great Causeawarded the vacant Crown of Scotland to his grandfather's first cousin once removed, John Balliol. In turn, that son, Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandaleresigned his earldom of Carrick to his eldest son, Robert, the future king, so as to protect the Bruce's kingship claim while their middle lord Robert the Bruce's father now held only English lands.
Even after John's accession, Edward still continued to assert his authority over Scotland and relations between the two kings soon began to deteriorate. Robert the Bruce and his father both considered John a usurper. The Bruces and the earls of Angus and March refused, and the Bruce family withdrew temporarily from Scotland, while the Comyns seized their estates in Annandale and Carrick, granting them to John Comyn, Earl of Buchan.
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Beginning of the Wars of Independence[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Almost the first blow in the war between Scotland and England was a direct attack on the Bruces.
On 26 MarchEaster Monday, seven Scottish earls made a surprise attack on the walled city of Carlislewhich was not so much an attack against England as the Comyn Earl of Buchan and their faction attacking their Bruce enemies. Robert Bruce would have gained first-hand knowledge of the city's defences.
The next time Carlisle was besieged, inRobert the Bruce would be leading the attack. The campaign had been very successful, but the English triumph would only be temporary. It appears that Robert Bruce had fallen under the influence of his grandfather's friends, Wishart and Stewart, who had inspired him to resistance. No man holds his own flesh and blood in hatred and I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in which I was born.
I ask that you please come with me and you will be my councillors and close comrades"   Urgent letters were sent ordering Bruce to support Edward's commander, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey to whom Bruce was relatedin the summer of ; but instead of complying, Bruce continued to support the revolt against Edward I.
That Bruce was in the forefront of fomenting rebellion is shown in a letter written to Edward by Hugh Cressingham on 23 Julywhich reports the opinion that "if you had the earl of Carrick, the Steward of Scotland and his brother The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will and were pardoned for their recent violence in return for swearing allegiance to King Edward.
The Bishop of Glasgow, James the Steward, and Sir Alexander Lindsay became sureties for Bruce until he delivered his infant daughter Marjorie as a hostage, which he never did. This participation is contested as no Bruce appears on the Falkirk roll of nobles present in the English army, and two 19th Century antiquarians, Alexander Murison and George Chalmers, have stated Bruce did not participate and in the following month decided to lay waste Annandale and burn Ayr Castle, to prevent it being garrisoned by the English.
He was succeeded by Robert Bruce and John Comyn as joint Guardians, but they could not see past their personal differences. As a nephew and supporter of King John, and as someone with a serious claim to the Scottish throne, Comyn was Bruce's enemy. InWilliam LambertonBishop of St. Andrewswas appointed as a third, neutral Guardian to try to maintain order between Bruce and Comyn. Soules was appointed largely because he was part of neither the Bruce nor the Comyn camps and was a patriot.
He was an active Guardian and made renewed efforts to have King John returned to the Scottish throne. Though he captured the castles of Bothwell and Turnberryhe did little to damage the Scots' fighting ability, and in January he agreed to a nine-month truce.
It was around this time that Robert the Bruce submitted to Edward, along with other nobles, even though he had been on the side of the Scots until then. There were rumours that John Balliol would return to regain the Scottish throne. Soules, who had probably been appointed by John, supported his return, as did most other nobles. But it was no more than a rumour and nothing came of it.
In MarchBruce sent a letter to the monks at Melrose Abbey apologising for having called tenants of the monks to service in his army when there had been no national call-up. Bruce pledged that, henceforth, he would "never again" require the monks to serve unless it was to "the common army of the whole realm", for national defence. Bruce also married his second wife that year, Elizabeth de Burghthe daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster.
By Elizabeth he had four children: InEdward invaded again, reaching Edinburgh before marching to Perth. From there he marched through Moray to Badenoch before re-tracing his path back south to Dunfermline. With the country now under submission, all the leading Scots, except for William Wallace, surrendered to Edward in February John Comyn, who was by now Guardian, submitted to Edward.
The laws and liberties of Scotland were to be as they had been in the days of Alexander IIIand any that needed alteration would be with the assent of King Edward and the advice of the Scots nobles.
Robert the Bruce: myths busted - The Scotsman
On 11 JuneBruce and William Lamberton made a pact that bound them, each to the other, in "friendship and alliance against all men. The pact is often interpreted[ by whom? Homage was again obtained from the nobles and the burghs, and a parliament was held to elect those who would meet later in the year with the English parliament to establish rules for the governance of Scotland.
The Earl of RichmondEdward's nephew, was to head up the subordinate government of Scotland. While all this took place, William Wallace was finally captured near Glasgowand he was hanged, drawn, and quartered in London on 23 August In SeptemberEdward ordered Robert Bruce to put his castle at Kildrummy"in the keeping of such a man as he himself will be willing to answer for," suggesting that King Edward suspected Robert was not entirely trustworthy and may have been plotting behind his back.
However, an identical phrase appears in an agreement between Edward and his lieutenant and lifelong friend, Aymer de Valence. A further sign of Edward's distrust occurred on 10 Octoberwhen Edward revoked his gift of Sir Gilbert de Umfraville's lands to Bruce that he had made only six months before.
Murder of John Comyn[ edit ] The killing of Comyn in the Greyfriars church in Dumfries, as imagined by Felix Philippoteauxa 19th-century illustrator Bruce, like all his family, had a complete belief in his right to the throne.
However, his actions of supporting alternately the English and Scottish armies had led to a great deal of distrust towards Bruce among the "Community of the Realm of Scotland". His ambition was further thwarted by John Comynwho had been much more resolute in his opposition to the English. Comyn was the most powerful noble in Scotland and was related to many more powerful nobles both within Scotland and England, including relatives that held the earldoms of Buchan, Mar, Ross, Fife, Angus, Dunbar, and Strathearn; the Lordships of Kilbride, Kirkintilloch, Lenzie, Bedrule, and Scraesburgh; and sheriffdoms in Banff, Dingwall, Wigtown, and Aberdeen.
He also had a powerful claim to the Scottish throne through his descent from Donald III on his father's side and David I on his mother's side. Comyn was the nephew of John Balliol. According to Barbour and Fordoun, in the late summer ofin a secret agreement sworn, signed, and sealed, John Comyn agreed to forfeit his claim to the Scottish throne in favour of Robert Bruce upon receipt of the Bruce lands in Scotland should an uprising occur led by Bruce.
Edward would strip Balliol of his crown in after the war between the Scottish and English breaks out. William had a brother named Malcolm though, in addition to his brother John. Uncle Argyle was a fictional character, although an uncle or two may have indeed help educate William as a boy.
In the film, William Wallace returns to Scotland abouta man, after years of being away, visiting Rome with his uncle etc In reality, Pure fiction, Wallace in all accounts grew up in Scotland and likely never left his native land at any point as a child or youth. In fact he likely never left Scotland until his invasion of Northern England in In the Film, Edward I grants prima-nocte in Scotland, in which when any common girl inhabiting Scotland would be married, English lords would have sexual rights to her on the first night of her wedding In reality, Pure Fiction, it never happened.
In reality, Robert the Bruce was in fact the 7th Robert Bruce and his father was not dying of Leprosy. In the Film, William Wallace has no intention of fighting the English or freeing his country until his wife Murron is killed Wallace had refused to sign the Ragman Roll from the very beginning, even before his supposed wife had been killed, he was opposed to English rule.
In the film, Wallace falls in love with Murron, and secretly weds her. After which she is killed and William gets revenge on the Sheriff and English who cut her throat by cutting his Of course there is no solid evidence that Wallace was ever married to a Marion Braidfute or any woman for that matter, but it is a possibility.
After advancing on the town, Wallace is said to have cut the Sheriff to pieces with his sword, not cut his throat, and he and his band proceeded to burn two houses with the English guards inside. In reality, Amish and Campbell are fictional characters. Legend says that Wallace did have a close friend called Stephen of Ireland.
Of course there is no solid evidence that either Stephen of Ireland or Kerly really existed. In the film, Wallace joins with the highlanders led by Nobles Craig, Lochlan and Mornay before the battle of Stirling In reality, William Wallace and his men joined forces with the rebels under Andrew de Moray at Dundee in before the battle of Stirling.
Craig, Lachlan and Mornay were fictional characters; they never existed, although several Nobles did assist Wallace and Moray at the battle. In the Film, the battle of Stirling takes place upon an open field, during which Wallace and his men use schiltrons to repel the English cavalry But Wallace was not given knighthood until after his invasion of Northern England. In reality, Wallace did indeed invade Northern England after his victory at Stirling Bridge, but he did not sack or even approach the city of York.
They raided for both needed supplies and for revenge. In reality, Complete bollocks, it never happened, there was no attempt by Edward to bribe Wallace, and the princess was about 5 or 6 years old at the time.
In reality, Wallace may have been betrayed by the Noblemen under John Comyn, although there is no solid evidence of this, but not by fictional characters Mornay and Locklan. Comyn and his noble cavalry did indeed flee the field however, either by betrayal or fear, leaving the Scottish ranks of Schiltrons to be slaughtered by English arrows.
Although Bruce did pay homage to Edward I and fight on the English side afterthree years after the battle of Falkirk. In the Film, Robert the Bruce makes his diplomatic moves and choices under the advice of his pushy leper father