Money Demand and Money Velocity
The equation of exchange shows the relationship between the money supply, the The quantity theory of money assumes that the velocity of money is constant. The term "velocity of money refers to how fast money passes from some economic variables (interest rates, income, or the price level) have adjusted to equate money demand and money supply. For example, an increase in the money supply should theoretically lead to Moreover, the relationship between money velocity and inflation is.
The ten-dollars here served in three transactions. This means that the ten-dollar bill was used 3 times during the year, its velocity is therefore 3. This implies that the velocity of money can boost the means of finance. This expression can be further rearranged by multiplying both sides of the equation by M. It is alleged that when the velocity of money rises all other things being equal, the buying power of money falls ie.
Money Demand and Money Velocity
The opposite occurs when velocity declines. If for example it was found that the quantity of money has increased by 10 per cent in a given year, while the price level as measured by the consumer price index, has remained unchanged, it would mean that there must have been a slowing down of about 10 per cent in the velocity of circulation. If the quantity of money has remained unchanged, but there has been a 10 per cent increase in the price level in a given period, it would mean that there must have been an increase in the velocity of circulation of money of 10 per cent in that period.Macro Minute -- The Velocity of Money
According to this way of thinking it would appear that velocity is an important determinant of the value of money. Furthermore, if one were to assume a stable velocity, then for a given stock of money one can establish the value of GDP. Information regarding the average price or the price level allows economists to establish the state of real output and its rate of growth. The debates that economists have are predominantly with respect to the stability of velocity.
If velocity is stable then money becomes a very powerful tool in tracking the economy. The importance of money as an economic indicator however diminishes once velocity becomes less stable and hence less predictable.
It is held an unstable velocity implies an unstable demand for money, which makes it so much harder for the central bank to navigate the economy along the path of economic stability.
Demand for Money and Velocity Individuals demand for various goods and services is not set arbitrary but rather consciously and purposefully. People demand food because it offers nourishment which is required to support their lives and well being.
Individuals demand for housing stems from the need of having a shelter. Thus, the demand for money can also be called a liquidity preference. Money is a generic term, which is anything that can be used as a means of payment.
Velocity of money - Wikipedia
However, when discussing the demand for money, economists and bankers are talking about MZM money. The Federal Reserve defines 3 major classes of money. M1 money consists of cash in the form of currency and coins, traveler's checks, demand deposits, and checkable deposits. Because technology has blurred the distinction between M1 and M2 money in terms of liquidity, a new category of money has been created to reflect the increased liquidity of most types of M2 money.
MZM money, which is money with zero maturity, consists of currency and coins plus all financial assets that are redeemable at par on demand, including traveler's checks, demand deposits, other checkable deposits, savings deposits, all money market funds, but not time deposits.
In other words, MZM money is M2 money minus time deposits.
- Mises Wire
- Relation between Velocity of Money and Demand for Money?
- Velocity of Circulation
The demand for money is the proportion of one's wealth that is held as a means of payment or as assets that can easily, inexpensively, and with little risk of loss of value easily be converted into a means of payment. Even though money held in savings accounts or in money market funds earns some interest, in this context, they are not considered to be investments, because they do not earn much interest, and there's little risk for loss.
People use these accounts to earn some interest while maintaining liquidity, thus satisfying the demand for money. For instance, it is often advised to save at least 6 months of living expenses, in cases of emergencies or a job loss.
Velocity of Circulation - How Velocity of Circulation Causes Inflation
Such savings would probably be held in a savings account or a money market fund, because it can quickly be converted into a means of payment without incurring transaction fees and with little risk. On the other hand, the amount of money invested in bonds or stocks does not satisfy the demand for money, because, although they can quickly be sold for cash, the sale incurs transaction costs, but more importantly, they may be sold at a loss, if the money is needed at a certain time.
The Demand for Money and the Velocity of Money Are Inversely Related Over the long-term, the link between money growth and inflation is strong, but, in many cases, money velocity is not constant over the short term, so some short-term inflation may be caused by an increase in the velocity of money.
Although the velocity of money cannot be measured directly nor is it predictable over the short term, it is determined by both the demand for money and the supply quantity of money.
Velocity of money
An increased money supply will lower money velocity, while a decreased money supply will increase money velocity, all else being equal. In other words, MZM money is M2 money minus time deposits. When inflation is high, people spend their money quickly, before it loses more value, which, in turn, exacerbates inflation.
Inflation finally declined substantially, when the Federal Reserve, under Paul Volcker, raised interest rates and slowed money growth. During the Great Recession in -money velocity dropped substantially and has fallen further during the low-inflation period from - If money velocity is constant, then: Hence, a fast-growing economy will allow the government to create more money to help pay for its services without causing inflation.
Inflation results when money growth exceeds real GDP growth. Since it takes time to develop economic resources and technology, real GDP is also relatively constant over the short run, so: The equation for the quantity theory of money is derived from the equation of exchange by setting the velocity of money and real GDP constant. As the famed economist Milton Friedman has said, "Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon.
Over the longer term, an increase in the money supply will increase real GDP by increasing aggregate demand. Likewise, a decrease in the money supply will decrease real GDP by decreasing aggregate demand.
Hence, a very high inflation rate will also maximize the velocity of money, which will increase the inflation rate even further.
Although the velocity of money is relatively constant over the long term, it can fluctuate considerably over months or quarters, which will change the inflation rate over the short term. To predict short-term inflation rates, the causes of changes in the velocity of money, or the changes in the demand for money, must be understood and quantified.
What Is the Ideal Inflation Rate? To facilitate consumer and business planning, the inflation rate should be low, study, and predictable. It should not be negative, because, otherwise, consumers and firms will hold money instead of spending it, thereby depressing the economy.
Such was the state of Japan for many years.