Future of India-UK relations very bright: Indian envoy - The Economic Times
Modern Indian History British Economic Policies - Learn Modern Indian History the Company's commercial relations with India underwent a qualitative change. The real blow on Indian handicrafts fell after when they lost not only their . The main changes which the British made in Indian society were at the top. .. an intermediate group of tenants, village artisans tied by jajmani relationships. The real blow to Indian handicrafts fell after , when they lost not only their foreign transformed Britain's economy and its economic relations with India.
While the former class developed rapidly, enjoying unprecedented prosperity, the workers—the labouring poor— in the beginning reaped a harvest of sorrow. They were uprooted from their rural surroundings, and their traditional way of life was disrupted and destroyed.
They now had to live in cities which were full of smoke and filth. Housing was utterly inadequate and insanitary. Most of them lived in dark, sunless slums which have been described so well in the novels of Charles Dickens.
The working hours in the factories and mines were intolerably long—often going up to 14 or 16 hours a day. Wages were very low. Women and children had to work equally hard. Sometimes 4- or 5-year-old children were employed in factories and mines.
It was only after the middle of the nineteenth century that improvement in their incomes began to take place. The rise of a powerful class of manufacturers had an important impact on Indian administration and its policies. The interest of this class in the Empire was very different from that of the East India Company. It did not gain from the monopolisation of the export of Indian handicrafts or the direct appropriation of Indian revenues.
As this class grew in number and strength and political influence, it began to attack the trade monopoly of the Company.
People Power: The Future of UK-India Relations
Since the profits of this class came from manufacturing and not from trading, it wanted to encourage, not imports of manufactures from India, but exports of its own products to India as well as imports of raw materials like raw cotton from India. Inthey forced the Company to grant them the use of 3, tons of its shipping every year to carry their goods. But this increase was not enough to satisfy the wild hopes of the Lancashire manufacturers who began to actively search for ways and means of promoting the export of their products to India.
Between andthey launched a powerful campaign against the Company and its commercial privileges and finally succeeded in in abolishing its monopoly of Indian trade. Agricultural India was to be made an economic colony of industrial England.
Year-long cultural programme set to inspire throughout UK-India Year of Culture in |
The Government of India now followed a policy of free trade or unrestricted entry of British goods. Indian handicrafts were exposed to the fierce and unequal competition of the machine-made products of Britain and faced extinction. India had to admit British goods free or at nominal tariff rates.
The Government of India also tried to increase the number of purchasers of British goods by following a policy of fresh conquests and direct occupation of protected states like Awadh.
Many British officials, political leaders and businessmen advocated reduction in land revenue so that the Indian peasant might be in a better position to buy foreign manufacturers.
They also advocated the westernization of India so that more and more Indians might develop a taste for Western goods. Indian hand-made goods were unable to compete against the much cheaper products of British mills which had been rapidly improving their productive capacity by using inventions and a wider use of steam power.
Any government wedded to Indian interests alone would have protected Indian industry through high tariff walls and used the time thus gained to import the new techniques of the West. Britain had done this in relation to its own industries in the eighteenth century; France, Germany and the U.
However, not only were Indian industries not protected by the foreign rulers but foreign goods were given free entry. Foreign imports rose rapidly. The free trade imposed on India was, however, one-sided. While the doors of India were thus thrown wide open to foreign goods, Indian products which could still compete with British products were subjected to heavy import duties on entry into Britain.UK BRITAIN is asking INDIA help for its Economy after BREXIT
The British would not take in Indian goods on fair and equal terms even at this stage when their industries had achieved technological superiority over Indian handicrafts. Duties in Britain on several categories of Indian goods continued to be high till their export to Britain virtually ceased.
Indian sugar had to pay on entry into Britain a duty that was over three times its cost price. In some cases duties in England went up as high as per cent. As a result of such prohibitive import duties and development of machine industries, Indian exports to foreign countries fell rapidly. The unfairness of British commercial policy has been summed up by the British historian, H. Wilson, in the following words: It was stated in evidence, that the cotton and silk goods of India up to this period could be sold for a profit in the British market, at a price from 50 to 60 per cent lower than those fabricated in England.
It consequently became necessary to protect the latter by duties of 70 to 80 per cent on their value, or by positive prohibition. Had this not been the case, had not such prohibitory duties and decrees existed, the mills of Paisley and of Manchester would have been stopped in their outset and could scarcely have been again set in motion, even by the power of steam.
- Handicrafts Gifts To United Kingdom
- India–United Kingdom relations
- Year-long cultural programme set to inspire throughout UK-India Year of Culture in 2017
It tried constantly to open new markets for Indian goods in Britain and other countries. Thereby, it increased the export of Indian manufactures and thus encouraged their production. This is the reason why the Indian rulers tolerated and even encouraged the establishment of the Company's factories in India.
Bylaws had been passed forbidding the wear or use of printed or dyed cotton cloth in the UK. Other European countries, except Holland, also either prohibited the import of Indian cloth or imposed heavy import duties. In spite of these laws, however, Indian silk and cotton textiles still held their importance in foreign markets, until the middle of the 18th century when the English textile industry began to develop on the basis of new and advance technology.
After the Battle of Plassey inthe pattern of the Company's commercial relations with India underwent a qualitative change.
Sourcing Handicrafts from India: A Guide for European Importers
Now the Company could use its political control over Bengal to push its Indian trade. The Company used its political power to dictate terms to the weavers of Bengal who were forced to sell their products at a cheaper and dictated price, even at a loss.
Moreover, their labor was no longer free.
Many of them were compelled to work for the Company for low wages and were forbidden to work for Indian merchants. The British Company eliminated its rival traders, both Indian and foreign, and prevented them from offering higher wages or pries to the Bengal handicraftsmen.
The servants of the Company monopolized the sale of raw cotton and made the Bengal weaver pay exorbitant prices for it. Thus, the weaver lost by both ways, as a buyer as well as a seller. Local Indian firms are chosen because of their vast inventory and expertise.
We conduct pre-visits before we shortlist firms to suit a specific project requirement. Our location in Bangalore, India gives us the added advantage of being able to take on physical inspections and arrange factory visits for European customers who would like to meet with the management before entering into a long-term partnership. Our experience of working with European customers and our native French team helps us act as an effective liaison and helps us negotiate better rates for our international clients.
Do contact us if you would like to attend important, upcoming trade fairs like IHGF to be held in October in New Delhi or if you would like to hire our expert services to shortlist an Indian, local handicrafts supplier to set up your art- and craft-centered business on European shores.
And watch this space for more useful intelligence on doing business in India.