they deal with values, behaviours and attitudes exhibited and encouraged religious education and Nigerian norms and values, which made communal living, good human relations, hospitality, religion and the something or somebody (Hornby, ). the group towards another member's behaviour which is either. The relationship between rumors and inter-communal violence . 19 .. If possible, they go to the place to check whether what they heard is .. None of the information on which we have drawn our analysis .. 34 In a footnote, Donavan cites a study of rumor during the Nigerian civil war that identified a greater. There are two essential benefits to exploring a relationship between religion and from an in-depth understanding of the motives for either violence or coexistence. What are the metaphysical priorities of each, and why do they attach .. The foregoing would be studied as a paradigm of intra-communal relations that could.
This system leaves victims of communal violence, who frequently have lost everything they own, not to mention their loved ones, at the mercy of an often unresponsive and ineffective police force. These problems are further exacerbated when the violence is communal or sectarian in nature. Police and government officials fear that if they arrest suspects, it might spark renewed violence.
Community and religious leaders often rally behind members of their own groups suspected or implicated in crimes during outbreaks of violence and pressure the authorities to drop the cases. There are, however, important exceptions.
Following the violence in Plateau State, for example, the federal attorney general took the rare step of intervening by prosecuting some of the perpetrators in Federal High Court, instead of leaving them in the state courts.
These prosecutions, including convictions of individuals for the March Dogo Nahawa massacre described in this reportwere an important step forward. To gain jurisdiction, however, federal prosecutors often had to try the suspects using rather tenuously connected terrorism provisions under federal anti-corruption legislation. Since then, prosecutions by state prosecutors in Plateau State have also led to several convictions. Aside from these infrequent prosecutions, the authorities have generally treated the violence as a political problem rather than a criminal matter.
They invariably set up commissions of inquiry, which are good in theory, but in practice have become an avenue for reinforcing impunity.
The police should also create a special mass crimes unit, trained in investigating mass violence, and quickly deploy it to investigate incidents of communal violence in an impartial and thorough manner. Those implicated in crimes should be promptly prosecuted according to international fair trial standards. The National Assembly should pass legislation establishing clear jurisdiction for the federal attorney general to prosecute, in federal court, cases of mass violence, in order to better insulate cases of ethnic and sectarian violence from political interference at the state level.
They should also use their expertise to offer targeted training and technical assistance to the mass crimes unit. The cycle of violence is not inevitable. Nigerian authorities can and should take urgent steps to ensure that the perpetrators of inter-communal violence are brought to justice and the victims are compensated for their enormous personal and material losses.
Cover the incidents of communal violence, including alleged mass murder, documented in this and other reports, including incidents and individual suspects identified in the reports of the various commissions of inquiry and administrative panels, community petitions submitted to federal authorities, and alleged sponsors of violence identified by witnesses and suspects in police statements. Determine the status and outcome of the investigations and prosecutions of those cases, and identify the reasons that investigations and prosecutions were not conducted or completed.
Ensure that those responsible for perpetrating or sponsoring serious crimes in Plateau and Kaduna states, including alleged mass murder, are promptly and thoroughly investigated, prosecuted, and punished, according to international fair trial standards.
Take meaningful steps to begin to address root causes of inter-communal violence in Plateau and Kaduna states: Launch a broad public education campaign throughout Nigeria focused on the rights that go with Nigerian citizenship and the need for an end to discrimination against non-indigenes.
Take meaningful steps to begin to allay fears of religious or ethnic minorities, including Christians living in predominately Muslim communities in northern Nigeria, by ensuring that their rights are protected, and that those responsible for sectarian or ethnic violence, including the April post-election attacks on Christians and their property in northern Nigeria, are promptly investigated, prosecuted, and punished, according to international fair trial standards.
Establish and publicize clear boundaries for international and regional cattle routes and grazing reserves, and establish alternative dispute resolution mechanisms for disputes between local farmers and pastoralists. To the National Assembly Hold public hearings, including in the respective Senate and House of Representatives committees on police affairs, justice, and human rights, calling on the police to give account of the status and outcome of investigations into communal violence, including alleged mass murder, in Plateau and Kaduna states.
Enact legislation establishing that specific crimes, such as murder, committed during mass inter-communal violence are federal crimes, which can be prosecuted by the federal attorney general in Federal High Court. Examine the incidents of alleged mass murder documented in this and other reports, including the incidents and individual suspects identified in the reports of the various commissions of inquiry and administrative panels, and community petitions submitted to federal authorities, and alleged sponsors of violence identified by suspects and witnesses in their police statements.
Determine the status and outcome of these investigations and identify the reasons that investigations were not conducted or completed into these alleged crimes.
Submit the report of the high-level review to the president and federal attorney general, and provide copies to the Plateau State and Kaduna State attorneys general. Order the CID to conduct prompt and thorough investigations into all incidents of communal violence in Plateau and Kaduna states, including alleged incidents of mass murder documented in this report, and without delay send completed case diaries to the respective federal or state attorneys general.
Systematically arrest suspects where there is evidence implicating them in crimes. Hold community meetings in areas affected by communal violence to explain the steps taken to investigate the alleged crimes and emphasize that anyone implicated in reprisal violence or intimidation of witnesses will be investigated, prosecuted, and punished. Establish a mass crimes unit based at Force CID in Abuja that can be quickly deployed to any future incidents of mass violence to promptly and thoroughly investigate those crimes.
Members of the unit should be trained in investigating mass crimes, including collection and preservation of evidence at crime scenes, forensic analysis, and effective and appropriate techniques in interviewing witnesses and interrogating suspects of violent crimes. The unit should also identify states most at risk of mass violence and provide training, in investigating mass crimes, to police investigators posted at state CID in those states.
Promptly investigate police officers implicated in serious abuses, such as extrajudicial killings, committed while responding, or related to, communal violence. These investigations should include abuses, documented by Human Rights Watch and other groups, during the November violence in Jos and the April violence in Kaduna State. Give a public account, including to community leaders and victims, of the status of these investigations and steps taken to hold the police officers accountable.
Implement reforms of the Nigeria Police Force including ending the widespread use of torture, through prosecuting any police officer where there is evidence of involvement in torture; taking clear measures to end police corruption, such as embezzlement of public funds, extortion of money from complainants or soliciting or accepting bribes from suspects; and improving the capacity of police investigators, including training and funding for forensic analysis.
To the Federal Ministry of Justice Give a public account of the status and outcome of the federal prosecutions for crimes committed during the January and March violence in Plateau State. Promptly file criminal charges and prosecute, according to international fair trial standards, all remaining suspects, including those implicated in planning and organizing the January and March violence.
Publicly and privately call on the police to conduct and complete investigations of the other incidents of communal violence, including alleged incidents of mass murder, in Plateau and Kaduna states. Enact a robust witness protection program for witnesses who provide evidence, such as testifying in court, against individuals implicated in perpetrating, planning, or organizing, communal violence in Plateau and Kaduna states.
To the Nigerian Military Ensure that all military personnel deployed to states historically affected by communal violence, including Plateau and Kaduna, are trained in the collection and preservation of evidence at crime scenes. Order all military personnel, including soldiers involved in arresting suspects and collecting evidence at the scene of violence, to promptly respond to subpoenas to testify at trial. Ensure that adequate funding is provided to all soldiers subpoenaed to testify, including travel and lodging expenses.
Promptly investigate and prosecute soldiers implicated in serious abuses, such as extrajudicial killings, committed while responding, or related to, communal violence. These investigations should include extrajudicial killings, documented by Human Rights Watch and other groups, during the November violence in Jos, alleged participation by soldiers in various attacks on predominately Berom villages sinceand extrajudicial killings during the April violence in Kaduna State.
Give a public account, including to community leaders and victims, of the status of these investigations and steps taken to hold the soldiers accountable. To the Plateau State Ministry of Justice Give a public account of the status and outcome of all state prosecutions for crimes committed during communal violence in Plateau State, including incidents of mass murder documented in this and other reports.
Publicly and privately call on the police to promptly conduct and complete investigations into all incidents of communal violence, regardless of the religious or ethnic identity of the victims, including the January massacre of Muslims at Kuru Karama and the anti-Fulani pogroms.
Promptly prosecute all individuals charged with crimes related to communal violence, according to international fair trial standards.
Enact, in conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Justice, a robust witness protection program for witnesses who provide evidence, such as testifying in court, against individuals implicated in perpetrating, planning, or organizing violence in Plateau State. Consider establishing a compensation program for victims of communal violence, and ensure that compensation is provided to victims in a transparent manner, regardless of their religious or ethnic identity or indigene status.
To the Kaduna State Ministry of Justice Give a public account of the status and outcome of all state prosecutions for crimes committed during communal violence in Kaduna State, including incidents of mass murder documented in this and other reports. Publicly and privately call on the police to promptly conduct and complete investigations into all incidents of violence, regardless of the religious or ethnic identity of the victims. Enact, in conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Justice, a robust witness protection program for witnesses who provide evidence, such as testifying in court, against individuals implicated in perpetrating, planning, or organizing violence in Kaduna State.
Offer assistance to the Nigeria Police Force to help set up a mass crimes unit at Force CID in Abuja that can be quickly deployed to future incidents of communal violence. Offer assistance to the Federal Ministry of Justice, in conjunction with the ministries of justice in Plateau and Kaduna states, in setting up a robust witness protection program. Continue to monitor, including through periodic visits to Nigeria, the steps taken by the Nigerian government to investigate and prosecute those implicated in crimes in Plateau and Kaduna states, in particular those responsible for planning or organizing incidents of alleged mass murder documented in this and other reports.
Methodology This report examines the major incidents of inter-communal violence in Plateau and Kaduna states in central Nigeria. These two states were selected because they have each witnessed more communal violence and suffered higher death tolls than any of the other states in Nigeria. The research examines closely the largest incidents of violence in each state sincethe January and March violence in Plateau State and the April violence in Kaduna State, and documents how the Nigerian authorities responded in the aftermath of these mass killings.
The report explores the reasons that the Nigerian authorities have not brought to justice the perpetrators of these crimes and the impact of the lack of accountability.
This report is based on field research in Plateau and Kaduna states in December ; April, May, August, and November ; and between January and March ; as well as telephone interviews with witnesses in January and March and January Human Rights Watch interviewed more than witnesses and victims of sectarian or ethnic violence in Plateau and Kaduna states, including 55 eyewitnesses to murder.
Given that communal violence has occurred in dozens of communities in these two states, the research focused on the largest incidents of mass killing as well as some of the smaller, but significant, incidents of violence prior to or following these mass killings.
In the major incidents of violence during and documented in this report—including violence in Jos, Kuru Karama, and Dogo Nahawa in Plateau State; and Zaria, Kaduna, Maraban Rido, Zonkwa, Matsirga, and Kafanchan in Kaduna State—Human Rights Watch interviewed witnesses or visited the scene of the incident within a week of the violence. Human Rights Watch followed up on these witness interviews with additional interviews, in andwith other witnesses from these and other communities.
Human Rights Watch asked witnesses to describe what they witnessed, whether they could identify individual perpetrators, whether they have reported the incident to the police, and what has been the response of the police. Most of the interviews were conducted in private to protect the identity of the witnesses.
"Leave Everything to God"
Several group interviews were also conducted with victims of the violence to collect information on how the police responded. Each interviewee was informed of the purpose of the interview and the ways that the information would be used, and all interviewees verbally consented to be interviewed.
Some individual interviews were completed in a few minutes, while many took more than an hour to complete. Human Rights Watch did not give witnesses financial incentives or promise any benefits to individuals interviewed.
Human Rights Watch has withheld the names of many of the witnesses to protect them from possible reprisals. Human Rights Watch also interviewed police officers, state judges, federal and state prosecutors, lawyers, community leaders, Christian and Muslim clergy, and civil society activists in Plateau and Kaduna states as well as Abuja.
Human Rights Watch collected and reviewed all available reports of state commissions of inquiry and federal panels of investigation, reports submitted to these bodies by various affected communities, and court documents from cases filed in federal and state courts. Human Rights Watch has been reporting on the violence in Plateau and Kaduna states since at leastand its investigations during that time also inform this report.
These documents and interviews helped establish the response of the Nigerians authorities in the aftermath of the violence and the reasons for, and impact of, their actions or their failure to act. Religion, Ethnicity, and Power in Nigeria Nigeria, with more than different ethnic groups, is a country of great diversity. Its national population of some million people is roughly evenly divided between Muslims and Christians. Ethnic identity and religious and political affiliation often overlap.
The vast majority of northern Nigeria is Muslim and primarily from the Hausa or Fulani ethnic groups, often referred to together as Hausa-Fulani. The Middle Belt in central Nigeria is home to numerous smaller ethnic groups, often referred to as minority groups, most of which are predominately Christian, although many areas in this region also have large Muslim populations. In the Middle Belt region, for example, numerous minority groups during this time resisted conquest and were victims of frequent slave raids by the more powerful Hausa-Fulani states to the north.
Not only do they face economic competition from Yoruba and Igbo residents who have migrated to the Middle Belt with well-established connections to the more economically prosperous south, but they also face economic competition as well as the risk of political, cultural, and religious domination by Hausa-Fulani Muslims from the north. According to leaders of these indigene groups, the Yoruba and Igbo have not challenged their political power or threatened their cultural or religious identity, but the Hausa-Fulani have been much more forceful in asserting cultural rights, advancing their religious identity, claiming indigene rights, and seeking political power in this region.
They also point to the willingness of the Hausa-Fulani to resort to violence to achieve these ends. Fulani pastoralists have long used migratory cattle routes through West Africa, including the fertile Middle Belt lands for grazing. In the early s, Fulani from northern Nigeria also migrated south and settled in rural communities throughout Plateau State and southern Kaduna State.
The rural Fulani, who primarily raise cattle for their livelihood, are predominantly Muslim, while the surrounding indigene groups, which are largely Christian, are mostly farmers.
Although there have been some efforts to establish clear cattle routes and grazing reserves in these areas, periodic disputes between the Fulani pastoralists and indigene farmers often over destruction of crops or cattle theft, have also sparked conflict. He sells cows to pay school fees for his children. He sells cows to feed his family. He sells cows for shelter, [and] he sells cows for [medical] treatment. Religious and ethnic identities largely overlap in these groups, resulting in one serving as a proxy for the other.
The Afizere, Anaguta, and Berom are recognized by the state and Jos North local government as the indigenes of Jos, while the Hausa-Fulani are regarded as settlers.
While they recognize the Afizere, Anaguta, and Berom as the indigenes of the surrounding areas, they claim that the Hausa were the first inhabitants of what is now the city of Jos, or at least helped establish it.
Inthe federal military government, under Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, who seized power in a military coup in and stepped down insplit the Jos local government area into two administrative posts—Jos North and Jos South. The city center fell within the boundaries of Jos North, while the town of Bukuru became the headquarters for Jos South local government.
The bloodletting has primarily pitted the Berom Christians, many of them farmers, against the Hausa-Fulani residents and rural Fulani pastoralists who have migrated over the years to these areas. As in Jos, the Berom are recognized as indigenes and the Hausa and Fulani are classified as the settlers.
In the southern part of Plateau State, communal conflicts have also centered on competing claims by ethnic groups to indigene status, as well as disputes over the selection of traditional chiefs, and conflicts between Fulani pastoralists and farmers from indigene groups, such as the Tarok, which are predominately Christian. Goemai are the largest ethnic group in Shendam and are recognized as indigenes.
Yelwa, on the other hand, is predominately Muslim, made up of a large number of Jarawa and other predominately Muslim ethnic groups. Unlike Plateau State, where Christians from minority ethnic groups dominate state politics, Kaduna State has historically been controlled by Hausa-Fulani politicians, though members of minority Christian ethnic groups retain significant political power and hold key government posts.
The state capital, also called Kaduna, is an ethnically diverse city whose population reflects the divisions of the state and of Nigeria as a whole. The river that intersects the city serves as a symbolic and physical divider for the largely segregated city. Relations between the Hausa-Fulani and the predominantly Christian ethnic groups in southern Kaduna have long been tense. Prior to colonial rule, the peoples of what is now southern Kaduna were regularly subjected to slave raids by forces under the control of the powerful Zaria also known as Zazzau Emirate.
Since intrastate politics have continued to be dominated by claims of marginalization and exclusion voiced by southern Kaduna community leaders, who claim that the state government openly favored its Hausa-Fulani population. These tensions have boiled over into deadly ethnic and sectarian violence. In Christian groups openly contested the possibility of the imposition of Sharia law in the state. In the early 19th century, Usman dan Fodio, a Fulani preacher, established the Sokoto Caliphate and Sharia law across much of what is today northern Nigeria.
Northern politicians capitalized on the populist mood, and state legislatures in 12 northern states began adopting legislation that added Sharia law to state penal codes. Although Sharia was adopted as a parallel law to the existing penal codes, and the criminal provisions only applied to Muslims, Christian leaders saw it as a step toward Islamizing the north and undermining the equal rights of non-Muslims under a secular state.
The legislation passed was a modified or watered-down version of Sharia, as a compromise to make allowances for the fact that the state has a large Christian population. Beginning in the mids, tension increased between Hausa-Fulani and predominantly Christian ethnic groups in Jos.
The first major inter-communal riots erupted in and were a harbinger of far worse to come. Christian indigene groups protested the appointment. The military administrator eventually capitulated to the pressure and suspended the appointment. On April 12,Hausa-Fulani residents took to the streets and the protest turned violent. You get involved, because conflict is a communal thing, and community matter.
If you chase the beast, it will run to another person house, and then it would hurt that person, but what you do is put your hands together and kill the beast. The idea is you address the conflict together, so nobody else gets hurts. Umunna bu ike combines personal success, strive and individual thinking with the moral obligation to the common good.
The Kpim of Philosophy Owerri: International University Press, A Historical Perspective Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers, Sadly the values representing Igbo umunna bu ike are significantly reduced and continue to evaporate today with the increase in individualistic values that have been introduced by the West, and which are at the center of Igbo ideals and values. For Nigeria and Africa to know peace there must be a reincorporation of traditional moral values with certain variations that help merge traditional culture and values with modern culture and values.
Elders and Mediators These ideals are conveyed in manner in which Africans deal with conflict. Conflict resolution is a skill found in African culture; however its manifestation might not be obvious to a western audience. Traditional methods of conflict resolution place importance on dialogue, social justice, restoration of right relationship and conflict transformation. Rosado 22 relationships are not restored after conflict then the conflict has not been resolved.
When there is a conflict a mediator is called into the conflict, the mediators could be an elderly woman or men, a religious leader, someone who has respect in the community.
The mediator will listen to both parties, and from there use proverbs or bible verses to guide the resolution. They are seen as the wise and knowledgeable for they hold the norms and ethical values of community to determine what is right or wrong.
Each village has a tribal chief, and these chiefs act as the care takers of the people. Apart from the king or Oba, they are clan chiefs. The oldest of the clan is called chief. Each form of conflict is addressed in a similar manner however with slightly different procedures. He could be seen as godfather of the marriage.
When there is a problem he is invited into the family home, in order to help restore peace and right relationship in the home. In traditional conflict resolution beginning at the familial level the system of reconciliation and restorative justice is deeply embedded into cultural practices and daily rituals.
In the larger society, just as every family has a head, every village has a village head; all communities have leaders who the people subscribe too, hence when there is conflict in the community, the elders or village heads are called to address the conflicts. Traditionally elders will call both parties, sit them down and ask questions to the first person.
After hearing their version, the elders will go back to the second person and ask them question. Through proverbs they will help the parties understand the situation better in order to reconcile.
Elders will appeal to both sides, begging them to let peace win. Rosado 24 and to understand the issue at hand and why it has come to their attention.
They act as an institution that when major issues arise in the community bring the people together and convene in a court like setting.
Traditional Conflict Resolution Skills: Nigeria Case Study | Vasti Rosado - santoriniinfo.info
In this setting, the elders do not have the power to sentence rather to reconcile, the courts convene in order to reconcile and bring everybody back together. Conflict resolution begins with finding the history of the conflict and the grievances of the parties involved. Elders will try to find a solution that benefits both parties, so that the conflicts ceases and allows space for peace to prevail.
Therefore when there is conflict, the clan heads or elders assemble the clan heads or elders of the people involved. Despair must be address by the elders, when there is a conflict, there is something in jeopardy, 89 Ibid. Rosado 25 which is the relationship, and this matter should be known by the elders before permitting it to increase to violence within the community. If the peace agreed upon is authentic it will not bring violence or loss of life.
As they resolve conflict elders must be conscious of using a language both parties are able to understand so that no one, thinks they are taking a side.
The moment one finds another person speaking ones language, humans are made to feel as if they are at home; minds begin to see one another as brothers or sisters. By doing so, women significantly assist in reducing violence and conflict situations. Rosado 26 while men work the land.
Women represent the family and the community, they symbolize all. They are at the center of creation, for they are the mothers. Life comes to be through them.
If one is looking for food, it is the women who prepare the food. Is there no other alternative? In cases of conflict between women, the mothers of the community will be responsible for mediating. However if there is a conflict between a man and a women, the male elders become involve in mediation.
Rosado 27 while educating in the success of traditional peacemaking. The British believed women belong in the private sphere for them women were to focus on domestic matters and the job of leading a people was left for the men, contrasting traditional view of women and leading for women to be presently perceived as belonging in the kitchen and second class citizens. Rosado 28 humanistic ways of conflict resolution. Women leaders need to show good character, and then educate others of how to take care of children and how to dissolve conflict.
They can spread such values through social gatherings which then allow for space in which people to speak their minds and create social awareness. As stated previously, proverbs function as moral guidance, record keepers of history and as education parables. Essentially proverbs are the sustainers of cultural values, history and knowledge in traditional Nigerian society.
While dealing with conflict elders use appropriate proverbs that fit the situation, for proverbs are of high esteem because they are words of wisdom and guide to relationships, the vehicle of language, and the holders of history which helps the community remember who they are and where they come from. Proverbs can be used as a kind of probing comment on behavior that shakes people into senses or advise them on the consequences of their actions. There is the proverb that says: You are chasing the beast to bite who; you are chasing the beast to bite who?
By the community coming together and acting in unison to resolve a conflict. Proverbs, as a conflict resolution method in traditional Nigerian society, are upheld by the moral strength they carry. The proverb reveals the communal relationships established and the role they play in conflict resolution and how proverbs help maintain good relationships in the community, even after conflict arises.
One is educated through proverbs, one learns how to think through proverbs, and they are the moral etiquette of traditional Nigerian society. For example there is a proverb that goes: When elders are at a loss for words, or do not have the words to express the feelings that are present in the room, traditionally they use proverbs too convey the emotions and feelings found in the conflict at hand. For instance there is a proverb that says: After allowing the proverbs sink into the psychosis of the parties, the elders once again plea to the parties to reconcile, as they provide advice and solutions to the conflict.
Nigerians depend on proverbs for there is many proverbs in the land that deal with conflict resolution. If the elders are in a tense situation that is difficult to resolve, the elders would say: Rosado 32 of who we are, proverbs are able to summon humanity and deeper feeling in order for people to relate at a deeper level with each other. A revival of traditional morals and cultural values with variations that meet contemporary culture could be achieved through a new pedagogy in education and the re-introduction of proverbs to the society through cultural activities that promote awareness in the youth and the larger society.
This new pedagogy, acted out through social gatherings in which one can share opinions that created social awareness, focusing on developing a sense of social responsibility in the community and the individual members that encompass the community. This sense of social responsibility would be developed by a mentor-mentee apprenticeship model. Elders and women would play the role of mentor, meanwhile the youth would be the mentee, since traditional values of age groups we assume are restored then the respect for elders would be present, leading for the youth to authentically learn traditional morals and values, while at the same time assimilating them into contemporary culture and society.
As they pass through school, rites or rituals should be carried out in order to represent the growth of the children and their preparation for the next stage of education. Character education is part of traditional Nigerian education models. In the past two decades character education has emerged in the western world as well. The Council for Global Education recognizes more than three dozen virtues that it believes can be taught around the globe in order to promote peace in societies.
If the traditional modes were incorporated into the modern education system they could achieve a more peaceful society. Proverbs are a perfect method through which character education can come to life.
This way of education can take place through the art of sokoni which calls for relearning the value of dialogue and actions that promotes peace and the building of new relationships. Sokoni arises from traditional culture, therefore making it a tool that resembles and embodies traditional values and moral. Kuriakose, Religion, Terrorism and Globalization.
A New Agenda New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, Rosado 34 equals and their stories can be shared and heard, thus leading to a restorative justice in which the relationship between the victim and offender is restored.
Themes of reconciliation are essential to peace education, for relationships are of vital importance for traditional people. Reconciliation taught in school would along down the knowledge and values of maintaining good and cordial relationship during and after conflict. They may begin to see conflict as a positive situation in which if everyone acts in good character we can used it as a space to grow together, with a stronger bound.
There is a proverb that says: When we remove the ideas of being right or wrong, an incorporate the idea of equality, in the sphere of conflict resolution justice, reconciliation and peace are achievable. In order to accomplish all of this Nigerian youth must re-awaken, by creating awareness in communities, about cultural traditions and history.
Nigerians have been passive for too long, the must once again become proactive and value their culture and history, thus unifying as a people of diverse background. The term development has the flexibility of being conceptualized differently; development is relative to time and space. The spirituality of the African peoples has been neglected, often perceived as primitive by European scholars. Nonetheless African spirituality is of great importance for the development of peace in Nigeria and throughout the rest of Africa as well.
Traditional religion provides the social norms and ethical values of community in order to determine what is right or wrong, with the ultimate goal of reconciliation. It is the determining principle of African life. In traditional Africa, religion makes up life and life makes religion. Africans engage in religion throughout their daily life.
In farming, eating, drinking or travelling, religion is present giving meaning and purpose to their lives. Religion penetrates into what is perceived as development. Africans have a holistic attitude to life and see development as any human activity which aims at affirming life in a holistic way that will enable every generation to ensure its survival and be able to hand over the land and society to the future generations.
Rosado 36 social harmony, for it is meaningless if it leads to social conflict. Traditional African ideas of development are intended to secure harmonious social relationships, peace and the dignity of humanity. In this perception of development, the Supreme Being, gods and ancestors function as guides and guardians. In order for religion to function as a path for peace and development in a pluralistic society such as Nigeria, there needs to be forums of interfaith dialogue, a space as sokoni, in which experts of the religions practiced in the country could come together and have open and honest conversations to inspire the development of the country.
Conclusion For Africa to return to its place of leadership in civilization, it must revalue its traditional culture making adjustments that meet contemporary demands. Traditional Nigerian culture is embedded with vast, rich knowledge of conflict resolution, upheld by traditional morals and world views. These morals and world views must be once again taught to the youth through traditional methods of education in order to establish a state of peace and development in Nigeria.
Women must take a lead role in the moral education of the youth character for traditionally such was their role. Through women empowerment and grassroots organizing the youth can be reach thus developing a new generation of Nigerians that value traditional culture with a modern twist that fits contemporary societal demands. Once the youth embodies such morals and values, traditional conflict resolution could be used by the larger society to resolved conflicts.
Traditional conflict resolution can only be Ibid. However with traditional morals and values re-socialized conflict resolution is achievable. Traditional Nigerian conflict resolution aims at the restoration of proper relationship within the community or society. Its main aim is reconciliation and restorative justice. Traditional cultures have pressing value for the westernized world, especially in the field of peace.
In order for us to reach peace in our global community we must begin to interlace traditional practices of conflict resolution and culture into the global westernized culture. Through traditional practices we can move beyond being individualistic societies and become a global community, whose focus is the protection and advancement of humanity and all that encompasses the human experience on Earth.
African Traditional Religion's Perspective. Understanding Obstacles to Peace in Africa. A strategy for resolving conflict in Yoruba Society. British Paternalism and Africa: An exercise in Afrocentricism Nsukka, Nigeria: Rosado 39 Iroegbu, Pantalon.