Real estate broker - Wikipedia
Real estate professionals must make written disclosures at the earliest practical the name of the buyer and what their relationship is to the brokerage. OUR TRADING AND BROKERAGE PRACTICES. . PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT This Relationship Disclosure Document. (“RDD”) contains important . trading services to or on behalf of a party to a trade in real estate who is an associate* (see next page for My relationship to this associate: acknowledge receipt of a copy of the Disclosure of Interest in Trade on behalf of the brokerage.
Exclusive agency Exclusive agency allows only the broker the right to sell the property, and no offer of compensation is ever made to another broker. In this case, the property will never be entered into an MLS.
Naturally, this limits the exposure of the property to only one agency. Open listing The property is available for sale by any real estate professional who can advertise, show, or negotiate the sale. Real estate companies will typically require that a written agreement for an open listing be signed by the seller to ensure payment of a commission if a sale takes place. Although there can be other ways of doing business, a real estate brokerage usually earns its commission after the real estate broker and a seller enter into a listing contract and fulfill agreed-upon terms specified within that contract.
The seller's real estate is then listed for sale. In most of North America, a listing agreement or contract between broker and seller must include the following: Property listings at an agreed-upon net price that the seller wishes to receive with any excess going to the broker as commission. Brokerage commissions[ edit ] In consideration of the brokerage successfully finding a buyer for the property, a broker anticipates receiving a commission for the services the brokerage has provided.
Usually the payment of a commission to the brokerage is contingent upon finding a buyer for the real estate, the successful negotiation of a purchase contract between the buyer and seller, or the settlement of the transaction and the exchange of money between buyer and seller.
In North America, commissions on real estate transactions are negotiable and new services in real estate trends have created ways to negotiate rates.
Local real estate sales activity usually dictates the amount of agreed commission. Real estate commission is typically paid by the seller at the closing of the transaction as detailed in the listing agreement. RESPA[ edit ] Real estate brokers who work with lenders may not receive any compensation from the lender for referring a residential client to a specific lender.
All lender compensation to a broker must be disclosed to all parties. A commission may also be paid during negotiation of contract base on seller and agent. Lock-box[ edit ] With the seller's permission, a lock-box is placed on homes that are occupied, and after arranging an appointment with the homeowner, agents can show the home to prospective buyers.
When a property is vacant, a lock-box will generally be placed on the front door. The listing broker helps arrange showings of the property by various real estate agents from all companies associated with the MLS. The lock-box contains the key to the door of the property, and the box can only be opened by licensed real estate agents.
Shared commissions with co-op brokers[ edit ] If any buyer's broker or his agents brings the buyer for the property, the buyer's broker would typically be compensated with a co-op commission coming from the total offered to the listing broker, often about half of the full commission from the seller.
If an agent or salesperson working for the buyer's broker brings the buyer for the property, then the buyer's broker would commonly compensate his agent with a fraction of the co-op commission, again as determined in a separate agreement. A discount brokerage may offer a reduced commission if no other brokerage firm is involved and no co-op commission paid out.
If there is no co-commission to pay to another brokerage, the listing brokerage receives the full amount of the commission minus any other types of expenses.
Real estate brokers and buyers[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. September This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Services provided to buyers[ edit ] Buyers as clients[ edit ] With the increase in the practice of buyer brokerages in the United States, agents acting under their brokers have been able to represent buyers in the transaction with a written "Buyer Agency Agreement" not unlike the "Listing Agreement" for sellers referred to above. In this case, buyers are clients of the brokerage. Some brokerages represent buyers only and are known as exclusive buyer agents EBAs.
Consumer Reports states, "You can find a true buyer's agent only at a firm that does not accept listings. A buyer agency firm commissioned a study that found EBA purchased homes were 17 times less likely to go into foreclosure.
Find real estate in accordance with the buyers needs, specifications, and cost. Take buyers to and shows them properties available for sale.
Pre-screen buyers to ensure they are financially qualified to buy the properties shown or use a mortgage professional, such a bank's mortgage specialist or alternatively a Mortgage brokerto do that task. Negotiate price and terms on behalf of the buyers. Prepare standard real estate purchase contract.
Act as a fiduciary for the buyer. Find real estate in accordance with the buyers' needs, specifications, and affordability. When deemed appropriate, prescreen buyers to ensure they are financially qualified to buy the properties shown. Buyers as customers[ edit ] In most states until the s, buyers who worked with an agent of a real estate broker in finding a house were customers of the brokerage since the broker represented only sellers.
Today, state laws differ. Education[ edit ] A person may attend a pre-license course lasting 60 hours and then be tested by the state for a real estate agent's license.
- Real estate broker
Where the former acts as custodian it is referred to as a correspondent broker. Both trust companies and correspondent brokers charge a fee based on the value of the portfolio held. The fee is agreed upon between you and the custodian within the terms of your contract with them. In addition to fees for custody, these custodian firms may levy other account or activity based charges such as fees for wire payments, changes for overdraft balances, etc.
A listing of the advantages and disadvantages of traditional custody vs. These records serve as evidence of your ownership of fund units. The Fund Administrator may levy additional charges if you require a physical investment certificate for your investment. You may also incur custodian and other related charges for safekeeping of physical certificates. The Brokers, through whose fund orders are executed including the correspondent broker, when it acts as broker on the transactionwill charge a commission or spread for this service.
Best Execution Trades for the portfolios under management may only be executed through approved brokers. Each trade must be executed through an approved broker who is likely to provide best execution for the order. However, for managed accounts, most transactions will normally be executed through the correspondent broker where the account is held, for ease of settlement.
The Chief Investment Officer will maintain a list of all executing brokers that have been approved by the Firm and the commissions paid to each, on a quarterly and year to date basis. The Chief Investment Officer will review this list on an annual basis and, approve or re-approve selected brokers, including the corresponding brokers, based on the quality of their trade executions, value of trading ideas presented to LDIC, and the factors considered when the Broker was initially approved.
The Chief Investment Officer may also re-direct the allocation of aggregate commission dollars. Where orders have been bundled, the respective trade executions will be allocated to each respective portfolio, based on the average fill price, net of commissions.
Where the entire order has not been completed, the executed volume must be allocated to each participating portfolio pro-rata, based on the relative size of their initial order, net of commissions. Notwithstanding the above, odd lot fills may be rounded up or down so that only normal lot amounts are allocated to each fund. Alternatively, LDIC may ask the broker to accumulate the executions in a holding account and provide an average price and executed volume for the whole order, net of commissions.
The accumulated execution will then be allocated to the portfolios, based on the relative size of their orders and on the average price, net of commissions.
The allocation of securities that have been obtained through a new issue distribution will be allocated to the portfolios under management on a pro-rata basis, similar to the method described above.
Soft Dollar Arrangements A soft dollar arrangement is defined as an agreement between a Firm and an executing broker for payment of order execution or research services only, provided a reasonable benefit to the portfolios in relation to the commissions paid, and reasonably benefit all portfolios that effectively pay for these services. The types of goods and services that will be paid for through commission dollars include: Investment related research, advice, analysis, reports, and the databases or software that it used to support an investment decision or strategy.
Order execution services such as trade execution and the goods and services to support the transactions. LDIC presently uses the following process to, select third party brokers and, make an initial and ongoing good faith determination that the portfolios under management receive a reasonable benefit in exchange for the commission dollars directed for payment of the above good and services.
For each of the goods and services set out above, LDIC will maintain an accounting of commission dollars paid in the course of the year.
On annual basis, the Chief Investment Officer will make a good faith determination on whether the portfolios under management are receiving a reasonable benefit from these good and services in relation to the commission dollars paid.
Factors he will consider include: Frequency of use Whether less expensive goods and services may reasonable, be used in lieu of the good or service The extent to which the good or service is integral to or adds value to the portfolio management process Whether the benefit of the good or service is reasonably shared between the various portfolios under management, in relation to the commission dollars that each portfolio pays towards the good or service.
Therefore, the employees managed account orders are bundled with regular client orders. Investment objective and risk tolerance are taken into consideration to propose a suitable investment model.
Therefore, LDIC employee having the same investment objective and risk tolerance may be invested in the same model as a non-employee client. Managed employee portfolios within the same investment mandates receive the same security opportunities, buy and sell prices and offer the same management fee options as all client portfolios.
LDIC will make best efforts to ensure an employee portfolio does not receive preferential treatment over a non-employee portfolio. Preferential treatment refers to receiving a better order fill of a security opportunity, a better price for the same security or a different management fee other than the standard selection available to all LDIC clients.
Employees are also allowed to operate investment accounts at other registered firms. LDIC has adopted a personal trading policy that applies to all officers, directors and other staff with access to information regarding the managed account.
How do I access my cash or deposit additional monies. How much notice is required? Whenever you wish to add or withdraw funds from your portfolio, you must communicate this to LDIC Inc. The best is to allow at least ten 10 days' notice prior to the date cash is required to minimize untimely sale of a security to raise the funds. Deposits to your portfolio must be made payable to the custodian.
A client service team is assigned to ensure a direct line of communication and accountability. Our objective is to build long-term relationships with our clients through regular, direct contact.
We encourage both formal and informal meetings to discuss investment policy strategy and capital market conditions. When should I contact you? You should feel free to contact us at any time you have a question or concern regarding your portfolio, the economy or the markets. In order to be in the best position to make suitable investments on your behalf, please keep LDIC Inc.
This includes letting us know if your personal or financial circumstances change or if any of the information which you provided in your Account Application form requires updating. These may include an address change, a job change, a change in your income requirement or tax situation, a change of authorized signatories for your account.
Why is the Investment Policy so important? The Investment Policy is the document we use whenever we assess the suitability of a trade for your portfolio. This document has been drawn up to meet your specific investment objectives, income needs and risk tolerance.
It outlines ranges of assets and the various types of investments which you have determined are acceptable to you and which we have determined are suitable to help you reach your goals. How often should I hear from you? We encourage clients to let us know how frequently they would like to meet or hold these discussions. However we will, on at least an annual basis, contact you to arrange an in person or phone meeting.
How do I read a performance report? Performance returns represent a total return calculation of the growth of your investment portfolio which incorporates all dividend and interest income net of fees, and prior to the deduction of any taxes. Returns for periods greater than one year, the annualized or average annual return over the reported number of years is used to standardized annual time periods.
Total portfolio returns list the performance of your overall investments and can be compared against an appropriate index benchmark or a benchmark of various market indices, calculated according to the target asset mix you have set for your account. How do I buy and sell securities on my own? Should you wish to invest a portion of your account on your own you can open a separate brokerage account for this purpose. Your custodian has been instructed to forward any materials with respect to these matters directly to our firm.
On a best efforts basis and where we believe there is merit for a successful claim, we will review Class Action material we receive and endeavour to file these claims on your behalf if we, as manager, bought or sold the securities in question.
If we believe your custodian already provides this service to their clients then we will not file a claim. What are the tax Implications of my investments? For taxable investors, the interest earned from fixed income investments is generally taxed at a higher rate than the tax for the dividends earned from equities.
Please speak with your tax advisor regarding the marginal income and dividend tax rates in your province of residence. Capital gains taxes are owed once you sell an investment at a price higher than what you originally paid.
However only a portion of this gain is subject to tax. LDIC primarily has a "buy and hold" strategy is intended to allow your portfolio holdings to grow in value over time without the drain of paying capital gains taxes. We also save brokerage commissions that would otherwise be incurred by trading in and out of the security. What do I do if I have a complaint? Written or verbal communications may be directed to Beryl McCallum or beryl ldic. If you are dissatisfied with the outcome of your complaint or we have not formally responded to it on a timely basis i.
Details will be provided to you in the acknowledgement and response letter relating to your complaint. Types of investment risks to consider Risk-return trade-off Risk and return are closely related.
To obtain a higher return, you may need to accept a higher level of risk. A higher risk portfolio is generally less stable and fluctuates more. Higher risk typically has a higher risk of loss.
Relationship Disclosure Document | LDIC Inc.
What are the general risks of investing? Your investment is not guaranteed; therefore, the greatest risk to you as an investor is that you could lose all or part of your investment. Portfolios own different kinds of investments depending on their investment objectives and risk ranking.
The value of investments in any portfolio will fluctuate on a daily basis. Economic conditions and markets as well as company news; therefore, the value of any portfolio's securities may go up or down. This means that the value of an investment when you sell it may be more or less than when you bought it. The following is a list of common risks which may affect your portfolio.
Risks relating to concentration If a portfolio invests a large proportion of its assets in securities issued by one issuer, in a single asset class or in a single sector, it will have risk relating to concentration.
When a portfolio is not diversified, it could experience greater volatility and will be strongly affected by changes in the market value of these individual high concentration securities. Risks relating to credit The value of a fixed income security may decline if the issuer of a bond or other fixed income security cannot pay interest or repay principal when it comes due or if the perceived creditworthiness of the Issuers falls.
This risk is higher if the fixed income security has a low credit rating or no rating at all. Fixed income securities with a low credit rating usually offer a higher yield than securities with a high credit rating but they also have the potential for substantial loss.
These are known as "high yield securities". Risks relating to publicly traded securities Market risk is the influence of a decline in the overall market i. Fluctuations in the overall market may be driven by changes in general economic conditions, interest rates and market sentiment.
In addition the market value of individual securities will fluctuate according to the performance of the company that issued the stock or bond and other firm specific factors. Historically, equity securities are more volatile than fixed income securities. Securities of small market capitalization companies can be more volatile than securities of large market capitalization companies. Risks relating to interest rate fluctuations The value of your portfolio of Bonds or treasury bills will be impacted by changes in the level of interest rates.
As interest rates rise, bond prices will fall. Risks relating to currency Currency risk is the risk of a decline in the value of securities held in a foreign currency, due to an appreciation in the value of the Canadian dollar. It also addresses the risk of a decline in the profits of a Canadian Issuer due to fluctuations in the value of currencies in which the Issuer transacts with customers or suppliers, or currencies in which the Issuer holds foreign assets.
Risks relating to liquidity Liquidity refers to the speed and ease with which an asset may be sold at close to the market price. Most of the securities held by a portfolio may be sold easily at a fair price and thus represent investments which are relatively liquid. However, a portfolio may invest in securities which are not liquid, i. Some securities may not be liquid because of legal restrictions, the nature of the investment or certain characteristics of the security. The lack of purchasers interested in a given security could also explain why a security may be less liquid.